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Brazos Santiago, Texas

“The Texas Expedition: Mouth of the Rio Grande and Vicinity, Brownsville and Point Isabel,” The New York Herald, November 17, 1863, page 1

In summer 1865, the U.S. Army occupied Texas in order to contain Confederate forces and support the Mexican government’s ouster of Emperor Maximillian I.  American troops transported to Texas included the Twenty-Fifth Army Corps which consisted of African American soldiers.

African American soldiers were chosen for this duty because “most of them still had one year left in their tour of duty and they lacked the political leverage to demand a discharge….Many Army officers believed that African Americans were better suited to Southern climates than whites, while others wanted to remove any African American recruits from their command.” (1)

Some of the brigades landed at Brazos de Santiago where soldiers “discovered a small, flat, and wretched island devoid of vegetation with a tiny village consisting of a few houses, several warehouses and a wharf. The island was totally unprepared for the large number of troops that descended upon it….Several days after landing, the troops began the march up the Rio Grande to Brownsville….The roads were in poor condition, many men became sick, and the unremitting sun made marching difficult leading to straggling.” (2)

“While in Texas, these soldiers garrisoned many cities and towns, helped restore order and institute loyal governments, rebuilt railroads, and protected the freedmen when possible.” (3)

1  David Work. “United States Colored Troops in Texas During Reconstruction,1865-1867,” Southern Historical Quarterly, January 2006, page 340
Ibid, p. 342
Ibid, p. 338

Note: “What is a ‘regiment’?” posted on November 19, 2018 shows how Union troops were organized (company –> regiment –> brigade –> division etc.).

Note:  The newspaper article and map are available online at “Chronicling America” (Library of Congress).

Manual Smith, Company K

The soldier died in the hospital at Brazos, Texas in or about 1865. Thirty years later his mother’s pension application was denied.

 

Mother – 617,678 / —–, Silvia Smith

 

Declaration for Dependent Mother’s Pension, Silvia Smith, 6 July 1895 
84 years old; residence, Elizabeth City County, Va.; post-office address, Hampton, Elizabeth City County, Va.
“… mother of Manuel Smith … who died … on or about September 1865, from the effects of a disease,Ttyphoid Fever, in the hospital at Braz [sic] Texas … Also personally appeared John Walker, residing at Hampton, and Andrew Benjamin, residing at Hampton …”

 

Department of the Interior, Bureau of Pensions (Form 3-060), 30 July 1895
“Died in service about September 1865. It is also alleged that while on duty at Brazos, Texas on or about 1865, he was disabled by Typhoid Fever and was treated in hospitals of which the names, locations, and dates of treatments are as follows: Hospital at Brazos, Texas”

After his military service, the soldier settled in Oxford, Granville County, North Carolina. In 1874, George Paschall fell out of a house and fractured his skull. His adult children — one of them a married woman — applied for pension benefits as “minor children” and were denied.

 

Minor — 500,892 / —–

 

Declaration of Pension or Increase of Pension of Children under Sixteen years of Age, George Paschall & Martha Gaines, 27 February 1891
“State of North Carolina, County of Granville … George Paschall and Martha Gaines nee [Martha Paschall], minor children of George Paschall … residents of North Carolina … aged 21 & 19 years, respectively … they are the legitimate children of George Paschall … who died at Oxford in Granville County from a fall out of a house and cracking his skull about 14 years ago … that he left no widow surviving … their post-office address is Oxford, Granville County, North Carolina … also personally appeared W.A. Bobbitt & Sandy Kittrell residing at Oxford, North Carolina”

 

Department of the Interior, Bureau of Pensions (Form 3-060), 13 April 1891 
It is alleged that … while on duty at Died [sic] on or about … 1874″

 

Letter from Jacob H. Dewees, Attorney to Hon. Green Raun [sp?], Commissioner of Pensions, Washington, DC, 8 May 1891
“This Declaration for Original Pension was filed March 2nd 1891 since which time no action has been by the Bureau, as Claimant is in poor circumstances, and is continually appealing to me for information, I shall make this earnest call as [illegible] of claim, and shall look for a prompt reply.
Very respectfully,
Jacob H. Dewees
Attorney, 606 5th NW
Washington, DC
per JBJ”

“First Monday” features an extra sketch or sidebar. Today’s posts include George Paschall, Company C, Manual Smith, Company K and Brazos Santiago, Texas.

“Although Lincolnsville was primarily a residential community, there were a number of key black-owned businesses and organizations that provided for the commercial and social needs of its inhabitants. Locals and immigrants were the mainstay of the Lincolnsville community, especially those who were employed at the shipyard or were professionals such as teachers, lawyers, and physicians. …  In the late 1950s, Portsmouth’s’ city council hose the community as it first urban renewal project. Residents were prohibited from improving their residences. Instead the city chose to level this community that functioned as a city within a city with its own professional, trade, and working classes.”

Cassandra Newby-Alexander, Mae Breckenridge-Haywood, and the African American Historical Society of Portsmouth. Portsmouth, Virginia (Black America Series). Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2003, page 51.
Note: The text above and the map to the right appeared on the same page.

 

Note: A color version of this map was posted November 18, 2019.

 

Two men with the same name served in this regiment — one served in Company G; the other in Company K. Both settled in Portsmouth when their service ended. The “Company K” soldier was born in Nansemond County, Virginia. He married Mary Frances Perry about 1864 in Newport News; he married Emma Jane Foreman in 1912 in Berkley.

 

Invalid — 654,491 / 1,064,491
Widow — 151,860 / —— , Emma J. Reddick
C — 2,530,723

 

General Affidavit, Stephen Reddick, 7 August 1890
55 years old; post-office address, Berkley, Va … “I am afflicted in the eyes & pain the back by being thrown from a horse on drill at Fortress Monroe, Va. in year 1864 March 1st”

 

Continuance Affidavit, Nelson Tynes, 13 November 1890
51 years old; post-office address, Berkley, Va. … “has been well and personally acquainted [with the claimant] since 1866 until the present, during which time affiant has lived within one mile of claimant and seen and conversed with him as often as 3 times per week … has observed that the claimant has been suffering from misery in the back & eyes and has frequently noticed the following symptoms of the same. That the pains of the back are so severe at times as to prevent him from all kinds of work and that he complains of great weakness of the eyes … these disabilities have disqualified the claimant for manual labor to the extent of one half”

 

Medical Affidavit, W.W. Coggin, M.D., 11 April 1893
has been practicing medicine for 32 years; post-office address, Norfolk, Va.
“I certify that I have treated Stephen Reddick for ten years … he is not able to perform manual labor more than one-fourth of his time.”

 

Claimant’s Affidavit, Stephen Reddick, 9 December 1899
“The reason I cannot furnish the evidence of the Surgeons of my residence and who treated me in service. I do not know their post-office address, or whether they were living or dead; their names were Drs. Manning & Gray.”

 

Questionnaire (Form 3-374), Stephen Reddick, 29 June 1903
[birthplace] Nansemond Co., Va.
[enlisted at] Norfolk, Va.
[residence before enlistment] Suffolk & Portsmouth, Va.
[occupation] laborer
[enslaved, former owners] Yes, Burr Reddick & Willis S. Reddick
[discharged] City Point, Va.
[residences after discharge] Portsmouth, Va. 1866; South Mills, 1867-1870; Berkley, 1870-1900.
[occupation] laborer
[present residence] 100 First St., Berkley, Va.

 

Questionnaire, Stephen Reddick, 29 June 1903
[married] wife dead, Mary Frances Reddick nee Perry 
[when, where, by whom] about 1864 at Newport News, Va., no license, no ceremony
[record] no
[previous marriage] no
[living children] no

 

Declaration for Pension, Stephen Reddick, 18 May 1912
73 years old; residence, Norfolk Co., Va. …. born 1828 at Nansemond County, Virginia

 

Marriage License, Stephen Reddick & Emma Jane Foreman, 15 October 1912
License issued in Norfolk County, Va. Marriage took place 17 October 1912. Husband was 65 years old; wife was 52 years old. Both were widowed. Husband was born in Nansemond Co., Va.; wife was born in Norfolk Co., Va. Both resided in Norfolk Co., Va. Husband’s parents were Stephen Miltier and Sophia Jones. Wife’s parents were March & Eliza Etheredge. Husband’s occupation was laborer. Officiated by Jesse Jones in Berkley.

 

Marriage Certificate, Stephen Reddick & Emma Foreman, 17 October 1912
“This certifies that Stephen Reddick and Emma Foreman were united by me in the Holy Bond of Matrimony at my home in Berkley Ward, Norfolk, Va. on the 17 day of October in the year of our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and 12, Conformably with the Ordinance of God and the Laws of the State, In the presence of Mrs. Ophelia Jones, Witness [Mrs. Ophelia Jones], Rev. Jesse T. Jones, Pastor

 

Deposition, Stephen Reddick, 10 April 1913
84 years old; occupation, light work; residence, Campostella, near Berkley; post-office address, Berkley Station, Norfolk, Va.
“I don’t know where my discharge certificate is. I used to sign my vouchers in the office of Hubbard & Hubbard. I got my last two checks without signing my vouchers and had them cashed in Mr. Martin’s bank in Berkley. I signed them by “X” mark and the bank man witnessed it, don’t know their names.”

 

Questionnaire (3-380), Stephen Reddick, 15 September 1915
[birthdate/birthplace] Nancymon [sic] County, Va., date not known
[organization] Co. K, 1st USCC, J.L. Whiteman, Captain
[post-office at enlistement] Portsmouth, Va.
[wife’s name] Emma Jane Reddick; maiden name
[when, where, by whom] Oct 17, 1912 in Berkley by Rev. Jessie Jones
[official record] no, was married at the home of Rev. Jessie Jones
[previously married] Mary Francies Perry was the maiden name of my first wife. Was married in 1862, exact date is lost. She died in Berkley in 1895, day not known. No other marriage.
[present wife’s previous marriage] Alexander Foreman in the month of September 1885, exact day not known. He died Nov 29th 1907. He served in First US Colored Cavalry, Company E under Captain Emerson. First marriage to Solomon Brock in month of March 1877, day not known.
[living with wife] Yes, I am now living with my wife, no separation.
[names, dates of birth, all children, living or dead] William Bell Reddick, born 1877 in the month of March, exact date not known. He was my only child and he is dead.
My colonel was Jef Gorodd

 

Sworn Statement, Nettie Norfleet & Rebekah Mitchell, 15 May 1920
[Norfleet] 55 years old; residence, 44 St. James St., Norfolk, Va.
[Mitchell] about 56 years old; residence, 123 Henry St., South Norfolk, Va.
“That they knew Stephen Reddick 30 years and about the same she knew herself, respectively, as Stephen was married to her sister from her early recollection; that Mary Frances Reddick, the first wife died Octr 31st — 27 years ago last October, that she Nettie Norfleet was standing by her when Mary Frances Reddick died and that she Rebekah Mitchell saw her shortly after her sister Mary Frances Reddick died that Stephen Reddick never married again until he married Emma Foreman about and that Emma Reddick has not married since the death of Stephen Reddick.”

 

General Affidavit, Irene Reed & Sam Clanton, 17 August 1920
[Reed] 36 years old; residence, Campostella, Norfolk Co., Va.
[Clanton] 45 years old; residence, 713 Cray St., Norfolk, Va.
“That they are well and personally acquainted with the claimant, Emma Jane Reddick, they also knew the soldier, Stephen Reddick, they know that they were married in 1912, and from seeing them frequently after their marriage they know that they lived together as husband and wife without separation or divorce from the date of their marriage and as long as they lived in Berkeley, Virginia. They moved from Berkeley, Virginia to Saint Brides, Virginia in the year (September) 1918.”

 

General Affidavit, A.M. Burfoot, 19 August 1920
35 years old; residence, Fentress, Norfolk Co., Va. … “He is the physician who attended the soldier, Stephen Reddick, in his last illness and known that he died on the 12. day of January 1920 as shown by his records.”

 

General Affidavit, J. Polk Randolph & Grant Brown, 21 August 1920
[Randolph] 63 years old; residence, Saint Brides Parish, Norfolk Co., Va.
[Brown] 44 years old; residence, Saint Brides Parish, Norfolk Co., Va.
“That they are all well and personally acquainted with the claimant, Emma J. Reddick, they also knew the soldier, Stephen Reddick; they saw them frequently after they came to St. Brides, Va. about the year 1918 and know that they live together as husband and wife, without separation or divorce from the mentioned date and until the soldier died in the year 1920.”

Two men with the same name served in this regiment — one in Company G, the other in Company K. Both settled in Portsmouth when their service ended. The “Company G” soldier grew up in Southampton County, Virginia. He married Mary Jane Reddick “before the war and by consent of owners.”  Several witnesses had known him since childhood. The soldier was injured when thrown from his horse but returned to duty as the company cook.

 

Widow — 545,530 / —–, Mary Jane Reddick

 

Widow’s Claim for Pension, Charles Eason & James Wilkins, 23 April 1892
[Eason] 40 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Va.
[Wilkins] 40 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Va.
“Said Mary Jane Reddick is without other means of support than her daily labor; that the marriage of the soldier to her cannot be proved by recorded evidence because they were married before the war and by consent of owners. no license as is the case now required. That they lived together as man & wife and were recognized in the community in which they lived and that he died on the 24th day of April 1890 with what was supposed to be rheumatism the result of an injury received in the right hip by being thrown from his horse. Their means of knowledge of the foregoing is derived from being in the same brigade with the said Stephen Reddick.”

 

General Affidavit, Charles Williams, 14 December 1892
74 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va. …. “I was acquainted with Stephen Reddick long before he went into the United States service and afterward. He belonged to the same regiment with me – Co G. 1st US Colored Cavalry. I was near neighbor to him when he came home from the war and I continued to see him daily until he died April 24th 1880.”

 

Application to Determine Correct Service, Mary J. Reddick, 30 December 1892
“[Stephen Reddick] served in the state of Virginia before Richmond and Petersburg, Va. and relieved from duty on the account of being disabled by being thrown from his horse while on duty. This was the 10th day of June 1863 and thus he was returned to the company as the cook for the same …

“That names of the officers of his company were as follows, viz.:
Captain Colding
Sergeant William Teamor
Corporals Joseph Cornick
[illegible] David Ortly, Isaac Smith, George Rickers, Dempsey Copeland ….
Stephen Reddick … lost his discharge papers by being burned in his house by fire together with the house.

“Also at the same time and place, personally appeared before me Charles Wilkins and Albert Jones of Norfolk County, State of Virginia to me well-known as credible persons who being sworn according to law declare that they have been for 35  and 30 years respectively acquainted with the above-named applicant.
“I was in the same regiment with Stephen Reddick.
Albert Jones and Charles Williams”

 

General Affidavit, Charles Eason & Albert Jones, 29 June 1893
[Eason] 75 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
[Jones] 51 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
“That we were well acquainted with Stephen Reddick and know that the said Reddick was a member of Company G, 1st USCol Cav. We were in the same regiment. Knew him in the service and at the time of discharge and that we believe his discharge certificate was burned up with his other contents on the West Branch Dist. of Norfolk County. Our knowledge of the above facts are derived from being in the same Regiment with him. He enlisted on or before us on the 15th day of January 186[?] and discharged in 1866. And that the said Stephen Reddick was not in the military or naval service of the U.S. since his discharge in 1866.”

 

Affidavit of Claimant, Mary J. Reddick, 23 August 1893
post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk County, Va. “She was born in Southampton County., Va. — post office Jerusalem — knew him at least 12 years before we were married, was married by consent of owner as was custom with all slaves … had 17 children by our marriage but there were none under 16 years of age at the time of his death. That my husband was born in Nansemond Co., Va. He claimed his age 70 years when he died. His height about 5 feet 8 inches, bacon color, name of his owner Abram Reddick and that he never had any other wife.”

 

General Affidavit, Narcissa Parker & Mary Westmoreland, 6 September 1893
[Parker] 50 years old; post-office address
[Westmoreland] 44 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
[The form’s intended for one statement but two individuals were noted on the form. The post-office address follows the second person’s name  which suggests but doesn’t prove that the affiants had the same post-office address — Leslie]

“We the undersigned hereby certify that we are well and intimately acquainted with the claimant and have known her from the date of her husband’s death. Stephen Reddick which occurred April 24th 1890 to the present time that she has not remarried and we believe that she has never lived with any other man as his wife since the death of her late husband.”

 

General Affidavit, Mary Jane Riddick, 5 February 1894
55 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.  “That there is no ‘plantation records’ of her marriage to Stephen Reddick. That her former owner Ned Rawles is dead and can’t be reached.”

 

General Affidavit, Narcissa Daughtry & Rona Eley, 5 February 1894
[Daughtrey] 50 years old;
[Eley] 47 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
[The form’s intended for one statement but two individuals were noted on the form. The post-office address follows the second person’s name  which suggests but doesn’t prove that the affiants had the same post-office address — Leslie]

“That they are and were well acquainted with Mary Jane Reddick and Stephen Reddick the husband of the claimant. That Mary Jane Reddick was a slave and was owned by one Ned Rawles of Isle of Wight County, Virginia. That affiants were also owned by the said Ned Rawles of the said county. That affiants have been acquainted with Mary Jane Reddick all of their lives. That the said Stephen Reddick married the said Mary Jane Reddick according to the custom of slaves before the war and lived with the said Mary Jane Reddick as husband and wife up to the time of his (the said Stephen Reddick’s) enlistment in service of the United States and were recognized and considered man and wife in the community in which they resided.  … That affiants’ means of having these facts are due to their time in the immediate vicinity with claimant.”

 

General Affidavit, Ann R. Bennett & Lavinia J. Drewry, 20 February 1894
[Bennett] 45 years old; post-office address, 613 Griffin St., Portsmouth, Norfolk Co.,   Va.
[Drewry] 62 years old; post-office address, 613 Griffin St., Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
“That they were well acquainted with the claimant Mary Jane Reddick and her husband the soldier from about the time he came from the war till the time of his death, nearly four years ago, having been a neighbor from the time of first acquaintance till the time of soldier’s death.”

 

Sworn Statement, Lavinia Drewry, 21 July 1897
66 years old; post-office address, 818 Griffin St., Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.  “That she was personally well acquainted with Stephen Reddick, husband of the claimant from the time of his return from the army in 1865 to the time of his death.”

 

Sworn Statement, Narcissa Daughtry, 18 January 1899
about 58 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.  “That she was well acquainted with Stephen Reddick the husband of the claimant Mary Jane Reddick having known him in his boyhood in Southampton Co., Va. where he said Stephen Redick was brought up and lived till the beginning of the war of the rebellion.”

 

General Affidavit, Narcissa Parker & Mary Westmoreland, 6 September 1893
[Parker] 50 years old; post-office address
[Westmoreland] 44 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
[The form’s intended for one statement but two individuals were noted on the form. The post-office address follows the second person’s name  which suggests but doesn’t prove that the affiants had the same post-office address — Leslie]

“We the undersigned hereby certify that we are well and intimately acquainted with the claimant and have known her from the date of her husband’s death. Stephen Reddick which occurred April 24th 1890 to the present time that she has not remarried and we believe that she has never lived with any other man as his wife since the death of her late husband.”

 

General Affidavit, Mary Jane Riddick, 5 February 1894
55 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.  “That there is no ‘plantation records’ of her marriage to Stephen Reddick. That her former owner Ned Rawles is dead and can’t be reached.”

 

General Affidavit, Narcissa Daughtry & Rona Eley, 5 February 1894
[Daughtrey] 50 years old;
[Eley] 47 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
[The form’s intended for one statement but two individuals were noted on the form. The post-office address follows the second person’s name  which suggests but doesn’t prove that the affiants had the same post-office address — Leslie]

“That they are and were well acquainted with Mary Jane Reddick and Stephen Reddick the husband of the claimant. That Mary Jane Reddick was a slave and was owned by one Ned Rawles of Isle of Wight County, Virginia. That affiants were also owned by the said Ned Rawles of the said county. That affiants have been acquainted with Mary Jane Reddick all of their lives. That the said Stephen Reddick married the said Mary Jane Reddick according to the custom of slaves before the war and lived with the said Mary Jane Reddick as husband and wife up to the time of his (the said Stephen Reddick’s) enlistment in service of the United States and were recognized and considered man and wife in the community in which they resided.  … That affiants’ means of having these facts are due to their time in the immediate vicinity with claimant.”

 

General Affidavit, Ann R. Bennett & Lavinia J. Drewry, 20 February 1894
[Bennett] 45 years old; post-office address, 613 Griffin St., Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
[Drewry] 62 years old; post-office address, 613 Griffin St., Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.
“That they were well acquainted with the claimant Mary Jane Reddick and her husband the soldier from about the time he came from the war till the time of his death, nearly four years ago, having been a neighbor from the time of first acquaintance till the time of soldier’s death.”

 

Sworn Statement, Lavinia Drewry, 21 July 1897
66 years old; post-office address, 818 Griffin St., Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.  “That she was personally well acquainted with Stephen Reddick, husband of the claimant from the time of his return from the army in 1865 to the time of his death.”

 

Sworn Statement, Narcissa Daughtry, 18 January 1899
about 58 years old; post-office address, Portsmouth, Norfolk Co., Va.  “That she was well acquainted with Stephen Reddick the husband of the claimant Mary Jane Reddick having known him in his boyhood in Southampton Co., Va. where he said Stephen Redick was brought up and lived till the beginning of the war of the rebellion.”

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