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First Baptist Church of Hampton — Founded in 1863

Several Black churches were established in Hampton during the Civil War era: First Baptist Church (1863), Zion Baptist Church (1863), Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (1864), and Queen Street Baptist Church (1865).

Robert F. Engs. Freedom’s First Generation: Black Hampton, Virginia, 1861-1890. (New York: Fordham University Press, 2004), page 71.

Colita Nichols Fairfax. Hampton, Virginia. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2005

Cassandra L. Newby-Alexander. An African American History of the Civil War in Hampton Roads. Charleston: The History Press, 2010


The young soldier and his wife married at First Baptist Church of Hampton in 1866. They had seven children. He described his interactions with the infamous Walter Plecker, M.D.

Invalid – 951,753 / 1,014,225
Widow – 15,851,128 / A-9-12-27, Julia A. Edwards

Marriage License [copy], Allen Edwards and Julia Ann Ash, 1 September 1866
License issued on 1 September 1866; couple married 2 September 1866 at Elizabeth City Co., Va.; Allen was 23 years old; Julia was 18 years old. Both were single. Both were born in Isle of Wight Co., Va.; both resided in Elizabeth City Co., Va. Allen worked as laborer. His parents were Jack and Susan Edwards. Julia’s parents were George Scott and Sarah Ash. The officiant was Young Jackson.

Claimant’s Affidavit, Allen Edwards, 9 January 1892
49 years old; residence, Hampton, Elizabeth City Co., Va.; post-office address, Hampton, Virginia
“My leg was broken at Hampton, Va. in March 1888 while working on the C & ORR tressel [sic], under contractor J.C. White. Was attended by Dr. Charles of Newport News, Va.”

General Affidavit, Allen Edwards, 28 April 1897
59 years old; post-office address, National Soldiers Home, Va.
“That I was in the habit of signing my own name prior to my impaired vision … my eyesight was impaired to such a degree that I deemed it practicable to sign by mark”

Questionnaire (Form 3-173), Allen Edwards, 23 December 1897
[living children] 7. all living. May Eliza, born Sept 24, 1870; Elizabeth, born Feb 13, 1873; Sarah Martha, born June 30, 1874; Aron, born Feb 18, 1878; Louvinana, born Jan 10, 1881; Ennis, born Dec 11, 1886; Delia A., born Oct 2, 1889″

General Affidavit, Allen Edwards, 8 January 1898
60 years old; residence, National Soldiers Home, Elizabeth City Co., Va.; post-office address, National Soldiers Home, Va
“That he was rejected three times by the Examining Boards at the National Soldiers Home and that he verily believes that said Medical Board is hostile to the colored veterans … Dr. Plecker, one of the Examining Board told him ‘he, the doctor could not give no man a pension or rate him in a pensionable degree, who reported for the first time, even if he the soldier-applicant was a disabled in a pensionable degree.’ The next time the Dr. said ‘I thought you were drawing a pension .’ He further states that he would like to be examined at Washington, DC.”
[Note: His witnesses were Thomas Ash and Robert Ash, likely related to his wife — Leslie]

General Affidavit, Stephen Riddick, 4 September 1900
about 73 years old; residence, Berkley, Norfolk Co., Va.; post-office address, Berkley, Norfolk Co., Va.
“That they were tentmates … that he has seen said Edwards from time to time since the War”

General Affidavit, Edmund G. Jones, 5 September 1900
58 years old; residence, Hampton, Elizabeth City Co., Va.
“I was in Company B of the same Regiment … At Camp Hampton said Edwards was thrown from a horse during a drill charge. Capt. J.L. Whiteman was in command that day”

Deposition, Allen Edwards, 16 August 1902
about 61 years old; occupation, farming;
“served as corporal … I was born in Nansemond Co., Va. about six or seven miles from Chuckatuck. Can’t give you the year of my birth. Was born a slave to Billy Green (dead). My father’s name was Jack Edwards and he was a slave to Dr. Ned Phillips of Suffolk, Va. My mother’s name was Silvie Ann Edwards and she was a slave to my master … My full and correct name is Allen Edwards and I have never been known under any other name.
“I was about 24 years of age when I enlisted … at Hampton, Va. and was sworn in at City Point, Va. … [mustered out] at Brazos Santiago, Texas. Immediately after I was discharged I came back to Newport News whence I enlisted and have resided in this vicinity ever since … mustache tinged with gray. Has a small scar to right of right eye (rt.) caused from a piece of wood striking me there while cutting wood soon after discharge … Our colonel was Garrard — Lt … forgot unless it was “Seipp” — Major was Brown and so was Seipp — Captain was Whiteman — 1st Lt was Hart — 2d Lt … forgot — Orderly Sgt Tom Pitt and he had a brother in our company named Ned Pitt.
[Note: Ned Pitt / Edward R. Pitt, my great-great-grandfather and his older brother Tom Pitt / William Thomas Pitt served in 1st U.S. Colored Cavalry. — Leslie]

“I tented with 2 duty Sgt Albert Jones (dead) and Jerry Wilkins. I was not in any battle but got in a skirmish up the Chickahominy River, Va. about six or seven months after my enlistment. We went up there with the 3 NY Cav.

“My witnesses were Jordan Christian and another man whose name I forget … Mr. John Palmer formerly of the Soldiers Home and then [illegible] wrote up for me but I didn’t pay either anything.”

“I have been married twice but my first wife ran away the first year I went in the army. Her name was Rachel Thomas. I don’t know whether she is a slave or dead or where she is. I was married to my present wife Julia Ann Starch at Newport News (Warwick Co.) then Elizabeth City Co., Va. and there is a record of same at Court House in latter county. We were married on 1st Sunday in Sept. in 1866 by Elder Jackson a Baptist preacher. I have two children under 16 (she had never been previously married).
“Inez born Dec 11, 1886 (boy)
Delia born Oct 2, 1889 (girl)
(Both are living here with me)
[Note: Delia Ann Edwards was a witness — Leslie]

Declaration for Pension, Allen Edwards, 27 March 1925
“79 years old … he was born Does not remember [the date] at Isle of Wight Co. Va”
[Note: He and his witnesses lived at “National Soldiers Home, Va.” – Leslie]

[married] yes, Julia Ann Ash Edwards
[when, where, by whom] 1866 Sep Newport News, Va. by Elder Jackson
[record] license
[previously married] no

Sworn Statement, Delia Lattimore, 9 November 1925
“She has known the claimant (Allen Edwards) over 30 years and that for more than one year last past has helped, aided and assisted him by rubbing him with liniment from his shoulders to his feet and in dressing and still continues to do so daily. He returned to his home from the National Home, Va. so as to receive aid, help and assistance without cost as he did not have enough money for his family and to pay those who helped him in the Home.”

Sworn Statement, Julia A. Edwards, 9 November 1925
“She is the wife of the claimant (Allen Edwards) and that for the last past several years has aided, helped and assisted him in bathing, dressing, applying liniment … particularly frequent since his return from the National Soldiers Home, Va. where he was about one year. He returned to his home as he was unable to to pay help that he received there and care for us at home.”

Letter written by W.E. Atkins, M.D., Hampton, Virginia [letterhead] “To Whom It May Concern,” 14 December 1925
“This is to certify that I have known Mr. Allen Edwards, 468 Holt Street, Hampton, Va. for nearly thirty years. He is apparently 75 years old.”

Sworn Statement, Allen Edwards, 23 January 1926
“That in the First Baptist Church, Newport News, Va. on the First Sunday in September 1866 I and Julia Ann Milton were wedded by Elder Jackson”

Death Certificate, Allen Edwards, 12 June 1927
[address] 468 Holt St., Hampton, Va.
[sex, color, status] “m … col … married”
[date of birth / age] “don’t know … About 58”
[occupation] laborer
[birthplace] Isle of Wight Co
[father’s name / birthplace] John Edwards / Isle of Wight Co.
[mother’s name / birthplace] [blank] / [blank]
[informant] Julia Edwards, Hampton, Va.
[date of death] June 12, 1927
[attended by physician] November 16, 1926 to June 12, 1927
[cause of death] carcinoma sigmoid, 10 years
[physician] Edw. M. Mickels, M.D., Phoebus, Va.
[burial] National Home Cemetery, June 15, 1927
[undertaker] W.T. Smith & Sons, Hampton, Va.

Sworn Statement, John B. Jones, 1 August 1927
76 years old
“That he has known Allen Edwards, and now his widow, Julia Edwards previous to 1890”

Sworn Statement, Solomon Brown, 11 August 1927
74 years old
“That he knew Allen Edwards (now deceased) and now his widow Julia Edwards, since 1890 as man and wife”

A digital version of DuBois’s 1899 study is available at GoogleBooks and InternetArchive. The links are below. The cover for the 1995 edition is pictured above.

An article in a University of Pennsylvania publication reported:
“In 1896, Du Bois was appointed an assistant instructor at Penn and began his investigation of the Seventh Ward of Philadelphia — research that he would turn into his groundbreaking work, ‘The Philadelphia Negro.'”

It continued:
“Du Bois’ completed tome, ‘The Philadelphia Negro,’ is intense, exhaustive, and meticulous, filled with methodically detailed facts, figures, charts, graphs, lists, diagrams, and maps, including a large, color-coded map—that was pull-out and printed in color in early editions—showing the social condition and distribution of African Americans throughout the Seventh Ward.

“He corroborated his work using colonial records, manuscripts, biographies and autobiographies, legal documents, census data, newspaper articles, correspondence, meeting minutes, publications, obituaries, private libraries, annuls, and in-person interviews and observations.”

Read the complete article:
Greg Johnson. The times and life of W.E.B. DuBois at Penn, Penn Today, February 22, 2019

The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (1899) (GoogleBooks)
The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (1899) (Internet Archive)

A short documentary is available on YouTube:
A Legacy of Courage: W.E.B. Du Bois and The Philadelphia Negro (19:16), DuBoisTheWard, June 19, 2012

The soldier, born in present-day West Virginia, settled in Paschalville, a neighborhood in southwest Philadelphia. Like many veterans, he couldn’t afford medical care and resorted to “patent medicines, linaments [sic] and plasters.”

Invalid — 925,312 / 1,134,438
C – 2,485,131

General Affidavit, Leonard Lindsay and Robert W. Anderson, 4 October 1894
[Lindsay] 55 years old; residence, Paschallville, Philadelphia Co., Pennsylvania; post-office address, 70th and Chester Ave, Paschalville, Pennsylvania
[Anderson] 34 years old; residence, Paschallville, Philadelphia Co., Pennsylvania; post-office address, 70th and Chester Ave, Paschallville, Pennsylvania
“They have known claimant for 30 and 25 years, respectively”

Questionnaire, John Brinkley, 7 February 1898
[married] Catherine E. Brinkley, C. Eliztha Price
[when, where, by whom] “January near the Darby Square, David Maul”
[record of marriage] “We do not understand this question”
[previously married] “Catharine E. Brinkley
[living children] “My first child is a boy. Lincoln Brinkley born 1865 July 9 day. My second is a girl Emma A. Brinkley born 1875 December 6 day”

General Affidavit, Benjamin Grabes and Charles A. Underhill, 12 July 1898
[Grabes] 53 years old; residence, Darby, Delaware Co., Pennsylvania; post-office address, Collingdale, Delaware Co., Pennsylvania
[Underhill] 37 years old; residence, Paschalville, Philadelphia Co., Pennsylvania; post-office address, Paschalville, Phila., Pa.
“They have been well and intimately acquainted with the claimant for the past 30 and 10 years, respectively.”

General Affidavit, John Brynkley, 19 March 1900
57 years old;
“Affiant states that he is unable to furnish medical evidence … as he has been too poor to employ a physician … that he has used patent medicines, linaments [sic] and plasters and at the present time has a plaster on his back. That these remedies that he employs help him for the time but the relief is only temporary … that he submits the affidavits of Jas. Gordon and Sherman G. Dade to show his physical condition in lieu of the medical testimony”

General Affidavit, James Gordon and Sherman G. Dade, 19 March 1900
[Gordon] 45 years old; post-office address, 72nd & Hooper St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[Dade] 29 years old; post-office address, 7113 Gray’s Ave., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
“That they have been well and intimately acquainted with the above named soldier for 20 years each; that they see and associate with him every day; that from May 9, 1899 to the present time, claimant has been totally incapacitated for the performance of manual labor by reason of rheumatism … that they have seen affiant stoop over and be unable to straighten up on account of the stiffness in his back until he could catch hold of something to assist him”

General Affidavit, John Brinkley, 29 May 1900
57 years old; residence, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., Pa.; post-office address, Church Lane, Paschallville, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
“That the correct way to spell his name as far as he knows is Brinkley: that he did make some attempts to sign his name in times gone by, but he could not make some of the letters perfectly and having suffered something like paralysis in the right hand he has abandoned that. In view of these difficulties he prefers to make his mark.”

Questionnaire (Form 3-389), John Brinkley, 23 July 1902
[married] Catherine Brinkley, Catherine Price
[when, where, by whom] Jan 10th, 1865; Darby, Delaware Co., Pa.; Squire Maul
[record of marriage] “do not no what you mean”
[previously married] “never married but once”
[living children] “Lincoln Brinkley born 9 day of July 1865; Emma Brinkley born Dec 6th 1875″

Questionnaire, John Brinkley, 23 July 1902
[date and place of birth] Kanamon [sp?] County
[place of enlistment] New York
[residence before enlistment] Philadelphia & Darby
[occupation] laborer
[former owner] Hardy Cross
[where discharged] City Point
[residence since discharge] “Paschalville Church Lane”
[physical description including permanent marks] 5′ 7-1/4″ tall; skin color, black; “one under left eye, one under right eye & left side were [sic] a tumor was taken out”
[current residence and post-office address] Paschalville Church Lane; Paschalville Between 63 & [illegible]

Declaration for a Pension, John Brinkley, 9 March 1907
“That he is 63 years of age … honorably discharged in Santiago, Texas, on 4 day of February, 1866 … that his occupation was sailor; that he was born July 15, 1844 at West Virginia. That his several places of residence since leaving the service has been as follows: Phila., Pa. “

True confession. I was so confused.
Then I read the notes on the catalog record of this map which is on the Library of Congress website:
“This is not a geographical map, but a historical time chart.”
Click here or on the image above for more information.

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